英语中分隔式定语从句解析

2018年5月9日 14:50:46

定语从句是英语语系中常见的语言表达方式,它的功能是修饰名词或代词,其位置一般是紧接在先行词紧后面。通常定语从句紧跟在先行词之后,但在具体的运用中,往往也出现有定语从句与先行词被分隔的现象。有时是为了行文的需要,定语从句和它所修饰的先行词被谓语、状语,第一后置定语等成分所分隔,有时是为了增加语言的灵活性和丰富性,在定语从句中经常使用插入语,尤其是在关系词和其引导的从句之间。

定语从句与先行词分隔的形式

1、定语从句被谓语分隔

Many forms of apparatus  have been devised by which a more accurate knowledge of blood pressure  can be obtained .

人们已经设计出许多医疗器械,通过这些医疗器械可以对血压有一个更为精确的了解。

 注意:先行词是apparatus被by which后面的定语从句修饰have been devised

分隔了先行词和定语从句。

不分隔的语序是:Many forms of apparatus by which a more accurate knowledge of blood pressure can be obtained have been devised。显然句子头重脚轻,不符合英语表达习惯。

2、被状语分隔

Never say anything behind a person's back that you wouldn't say to his face当面不愿说的话,万不要在背后说。

注意: 先行词是anything定语从句that you wouldn't say to his face被状语behind a person's back分隔。

I remember viewing a half dozen men in a chair factory whose job was to bend several pieces of steel and attach them so that a folding chair would result我记得曾在一家椅子厂见过六个工人他们的工作是将几根钢管弯曲并组成一把折椅。

注意:先行词是menwhose job后面引导的是定语从句被状语in a chair factory所分隔。

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3、被补语分隔

The cook turned paleand asked the housemaid to shut the door who asked Brittleswho asked the tinkerwho pretended not to hear厨子的脸色变得苍白,要女仆把门关上,女仆叫布立特尔关,立特尔又叫补锅匠关而补锅匠装着没听见。

注意:先行词是the housemaidwho asked后面引导非限制性定语从句修饰the housemaid定语从句和先行词被补语to shut the door分隔。

4、被同位语分隔

One was a violent thunderstorm the worst I had ever seenwhich obscured  my objective有一次是暴风骤雨猛烈的程度实为我平生所仅见。这阵暴风雨遮住了我的目标。

注意 :先行词是thunderstorm定语从句被the worst I had ever seen分隔。

5、被插入语分隔

Is there anyone you can think of who may know which hospital he was sent to你能不能想到有谁可能知道他被送往哪一家医院了

注意:先行词是anyonewho后面引导定语从句被you can think of分隔。

 6、被非从句定语分隔

Singapore is at the start of a long roadalready well trodden in the westthat leads to such solutions as shelter and rest homes新加坡眼下正踏上一条西方国家早已走了很远的漫长道路即最终建立收容所和休养院来解决问题。

注意:先行词roadthat leads后面的定语从句修饰road,already well trodden in the west分隔。

Does this mean that in time fish might learn to leave alone all food on hooks that they have seen before?这难道不就意味着鱼儿很快就可能学会避开那些它们常见的鱼钩上的食物吗 ?

注意:先行词foodthat they have seen before定语从句被on hooks分隔。

7、先行词所带的非从句定语常需置于定语从句之前而造成先行词与定语从句分隔

There was something originalindependent and heroic about the plan that pleased all of them 这个方案有创造性而且别出心裁又有魅力所以深得他们的喜欢。

注意:先行词something非从句定语originalindependent and heroic about the plan位于定语从句that pleased all of them之前分隔了先行词和定语从句。

No doubt there are questions of principle nvolved which can not be ignored and underestimated无疑这里涉及人们不能忽视或低估的原则问题。

注意:先行词questionswhich can后面的定语从句被f principle involved分隔。

定语从句与先行词分隔的原因

1、为了保持句子结构平衡避免“头重脚轻”将定语从句与先行词分隔例如

MrLeon said in the futurecomputer would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket利昂先生说将来会生产出小得可以放在口袋里的计算机。

2、为了突出或强调主句中的主谓结构所表达的意义将定语从句与先行词分隔例如

Chinese trade delegations have been sent to African countrieswho will negotiate trade agreements  with the respective governments中国已派出贸易代表团前往非洲各国以便与这些国家的政府商谈贸易协定。

英语句子中出现这种分隔现象的原因是主语或宾语带了过长的修饰成份。为了照顾主句结构紧凑,就常常将主语或宾语与其修饰成份隔开。现将常见的几种分隔式定语从句总结归纳如下,供教、学同鉴。


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